Coconut is a perennial crop that is preferably grown on deep, well-drained, light to medium textured soils, with a pH of 6-7, rich in organic matter, with a high fertility level. They are grown commercially between latitudes 20 °N and 20 °S, at altitudes of 600 m or less, with a temperature range of 24-29 °C, a relative humidity of 80-90 %, and rainfall of 1500–2300 mm evenly distributed throughout the year. Generally, the coconut crop is not irrigated, except for seed production (seed gardens). They can be planted any time of the year, but preferably at the start of the rainy season. Average annual yields of 80-150 nuts per tree are attained under favorable growing conditions, depending on the variety or hybrid type. The tall varieties would start to flower at 4,5- 5 years from field-planting; while the dwarf varieties would flower at 2-3 years from field-planting.The nut reaches maturity at around 12 months after a complete process of pollination and fruitsetting. On a young palm 1 bunch of nuts matures each month, while the mature palm may bear 10-14 bunches of coconuts at different maturity stages.
The nutritional demands of coconut cultivation are extremely special, due to the production conditions. Particularly the mainly sandy soils, with a high percentage of leaching, require a highly efficient supply of nutrients, with stable sources of nitrogen, soluble phosphorus and potassium of rapid assimilation.
One hectare of coconuts (on average 150 palms) produces 12-14 leaves and 100 nuts/tree/year. These contain in the harvest (matured bunches) the following amounts of nutrients (per year): 49 kg N, 16 kg P2O5, 115 kg K2O, 5 kg Ca, 8 kg Mg, 11kg Na, 64kg Cl and 4kg S. The husks that are removed during the harvest contain 60 % of the K2O, 18% of N and 26 % of Mg. Therefore, it is recommended that wastes, such as coconut husks and leaf fronds, be left in the field to undergo decomposition and remineralise the soil, so that the nutrients eventually return to the crop.
All weeds around the base of the coconut palm should be removed, within a radius of 0,5-0,75 m for young palms and 1-1,5 m for bearing palms. Fertilizers should be broadcasted to each tree as uniformly as possible over the circle of weeded area. Finally, the broadcasted fertilizer should be incorporated into a depth of 5-8 cm with the use of a suitable digging tool. This is necessary for N fertilizers (like ammonium sulfate) to minimize losses due to volatilization. On steeply sloping and hilly areas, place the fertilizer, equally distributed, in 10-12 holes (10-15 cm deep and 7-10 cm wide) within a 1-2m radius around the base of the palm.
COMPO EXPERT offers a controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) line, branded as Basacote® and Flexicote® that could consistently release the macro- and micronutrients for a healthy growth of the coconut seedlings in the nursery. Additional foliar applications of micronutrients from the Fetrilon® Combi line, and biostimulants line (such as Basfoliar® Avant Natur SL and Basfoliar® Kelp SL) may help in boosting the growth of coconut seedlings. On the other hand, for mature coconut palms COMPO EXPERT offers stabilized-ammonium (NovaTec® with DMPP technology) to minimize the Nitrous gases emission, reducing N leaching and thus improving N efficiency.