The olive tree grows in a large variety of soil types, even in those with low fertility. It is most productive in loamy, sandy soils with an average texture, good water holding capacity and aeration. Heavy soils that retain water are inadequate for olive cultivation, since trees may suffer from root diseases, which decrease the potential yield and the qualitative characteristics of the final product. In regards to the chemical characteristics of the soil, the olive tree grows better in neutral or slightly alkaline soils (pH 7-8). A balanced fertilization program should substitute the nutrients that are lost due to the olive fruits production.
The application rate of mineral fertilizers should be based on the targeted yield, the nutrient uptake as well as the soil and leaf analysis. Nitrogen is the most important element, especially for the vegetative growth and the stage of fruit growth. Phosphorus is a component of important tree enzymes and proteins as it is directly or indirectly involved in a series of metabolic processes, specifically, in those related to reproduction and energy transport.
Olive trees have high annual needs of potassium, particularly during the period of fruit growth and maturation, when more than 60 % of the available potassium migrates to the fruit. Potassium is also needed in high quantities, because it is a key element for fruit size and weight, the oil content of the fruit, and the qualitative characteristics of the oil.
Boron is an essential trace element for olive trees and the most important one for the flower formation and pollination. A lack of boron is the most frequent nutrient deficiency of olive trees and directly affects the fertility of the olive grove.
Zinc activates a number of enzymes and is important for the biosynthesis of auxins, improving flowering and pollination. Calcium is an important element for root development and functioning, a constituent of cell walls and is required for chromosome flexibility and cell division.
As base dressing NovaTec® Suprem is recommended. For fertigation NovaTec® Solub 21 is used. Basfoliar® Primavera SP and Basfoliar® Olivio SP can be used as foliar application. As biostimulant Basfoliar® Avant Natur SL could be used during bud development.